22 Ocak 2016 Cuma

Francis Bacon Kronoloji (En)

Tezimi Francis Bacon'in Denemeler (Essayes or Counsels, Civil and Moral) eseri üzerine yazıyorum, kaynak toplama aşamasında yaptığım ilk işlerden birisi kronoloji oluşturmaktı. Bu yöntem sayesinde günümüzden 300-400 yıl öncesini çok daha rahat bir şekilde görebiliyorum. Böylece belirli fikirlerin Bacon tarafından mı yoksa dönemin ortak bir düşüncesi olarak mı ortaya çıkıp çıkmadığı hakkında ipuçları yakalayabiliyor ve buradan hareketle başka yerlere geçebiliyorsunuz.

#DigitalHumities alanı bu şekilde gelişmeye devam ederse, yakında daha rahat şekillerde de görebileceğiz gibi, heyecan verici bir durum.

Üstadın doğum günü şerefine blogta bir şeyler paylaşayım istedim fakat yaşamını yazması biraz sıkıcı (ve şu an benim için vakit kaybı) bu sebeple tez çalışmama yardımcı olsun diye çeşitli kaynaklardan bir araya getirdiğim I.Elizabeth-I.James dönemi 1561-1626 yılllarını kapsayan bir kronoloji ortaya çıktı. Denk geldikçe bir araya getirdiğim bu kronolojide her madde için ayrı bir kaynak gösteremiyorum, herhangi bir maddeye itiraz gelirse kontrolunu sağlamaya çalışırım.

Aşağıda Bacon'ın doğumundan 22 Ocak 1561, ölümüne 9 Nisan 1626 kadarki süreç İngilizce olarak verilmiştir.



19 August - Mary, Queen of Scots returns to Scotland.
O'Neill's rebellion in Ireland.
22 January – Birth of Francis Bacon

Council of Trent session III.
Elizabeth's secret Treaty of Richmond, with French Huguenots.
26 May - Shane O' Neill leads a second rebellion in Ireland.
1 March - The Duc de Guise orders a massacre of Huguenots at Vassay, which begins the wars of religion in France.
22 September- Elizabeth signs the Treaty of Hampton Court, which gives assistance to the French Huguenots.
October - Elizabeth is seriously ill with small pox.

The Thirty Nine Articles are issued, which define the Anglican faith.
John Foxe's "Acts and Monuments" or as it is better known, "Book of Martyrs," is published.
Plague in London.

6 February - Birth of Christopher Marlowe.
8 February - Michaelangelo Buonarroti dies in Rome age 88.
15 February - astronomer Galileo dies.
11 April - Peace of Troyes : Peace between England and France. England renounces claim to Calais, on payment by French of 222,000 crowns.
23 April - Reputed birth of William Shakespeare.
27 May - John Calvin dies in Geneva.
25 July - Maximilian II succeeds as Holy Roman Emperor, as King of Austria, Bohemia and Hungary on death of Ferdinand I. Rest of Hapsburg dominions pass to the Archduke Charles.

29 July - Mary Queen of Scots marries Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.
Other Events
Kat Ashley, Elizabeth's old governess, dies.
Sir John Hawkins introduces Tobacco to England.

9 March -The murder of David Rizzio by Darnley and his friends.
19 June - James VI (and later I of England) is born.
10 November - Robert Devereux, the future Earl of Essex.

10 February - Darnley is murdered at Kirk O Field, Scotland.
24 April - Mary Queen of Cots is "abducted" by James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell.
15 May - Mary, Queen of Scots, marries James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, after his marriage is annulled.
2 June, Shane O Neill, Earl of Tyrone, is assassinated.
24 July - Mary is forced to abdicate. Mary's son, James, is proclaimed King of Scotland.
29 September - Huguenot conspiracy of Meaux to capture Charles IX provokes the second phase of the wars of religion in France.
6 October - Margaret of Parma resigns the regency of the Netherlands. The Duke of Alva takes complete command.

23 March - Treaty of Longjumean ends second phase of French wars of religion.
2 May - Mary Queen of Scots escapes from Lochleven.
16 May - Mary takes refuge in England. But her relief is short lived, as she is imprisoned.
23 May - William of Orange defeats a Spanish force at Heiligerlee. This marks the beginning of the Revolt of the Netherlands.
30 September - Eric XIV is depose as he has shown signs of mental illness, and replaced by his brother John III.

Other Events
The first Eisteddfod for Welsh music and Literature is held at Caerwys.
The English Catholic College of Douai founded by William Allen.
Elizabeth seizes the treasure of a Spanish fleet driven into Plymouth.

9 November - The Northern Rebellion against Elizabeth I breaks out.

20 February - Northern Rebellion completely defeated.
23 January - James Stewart, Earl of Moray, (half brother of Mary Queen of Scots and Regent of Scotland in King James VI's minority) is assassinated. 25 February - Elizabeth is excommunicated by the Pope (The Papal Bull).
8 August - The Peace of Germain-en-Laye ends the third period of the French Wars Of Religion.

Other Events
Potato is introduced to Europe from Spanish America

23 January - The Royal Exchange is opened.
The Ridolfi Plot to assassinate Elizabeth.
7 October - The Battle of Lepanto. The Ottomans, who have been threatening east Christendom for the past century, are defeated.

16 January - Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, is tried for treason (for conspiracy in the Ridolfi Plot).
22-24 August - The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve, in which over 6,000 French Protestants are murdered, provokes the fourth phase of the French Wars Of Religion.
2 June - Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, becomes the first nobleman of Elizabeth I's reign to be executed for treason.

11 May - Poland elects its first King, choosing Henri of Valois. The election was paid for by Catherine de Medici.
6 July - Peace of Bolougne, ends the fourth phase of the French Wars Of Religion.
BACON attends to Trinity College, Cambridge with his brother Anthony (1573-75)

23 February - Fifth phase of the French Wars Of Religion breaks out.
30 May - Charles IX dies aged 24. He is succeeded by Henry III, who abandons the throne of Poland and returns to France. Poland is left without a king.
Richard Burbage opens the first Theatre in England, simply called "The Theatre".
12 December - Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, dies after falling in his bath. His son, Murad III, becomes Sultan, and has his brothers strangled in his presence.

14 November - Elizabeth I refuses the sovereignty of the Netherlands.
14 December - Stephen Bathroy, Prince of Transylvania, is elected the new King of Poland.

Other Events
Elizabeth visits Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, at Kenilworth, amidst spectacular entertainments.

6 May - Peace of Monsieur ends the fifth phase of the French Wars Of Religion.
12 October - Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II, dies aged 49. He is succeeded by his son, Rudolf.
Bacon enters Gray’s Inn with Anthony to train in law. Then same year sent to Paris, stay with Amias Pamlet (until 1579)

17 August - The Peace of Bergerac ends the sixth phase of the French Wars of Religion.
13 December - Sir Francis Drake sets out on the first English voyage around the world.

12 March - James VI takes over the reigns of government in Scotland, the Earl of Morton resigning the Regency.
4 August - Sebastian I of Portugal is killed in a battle in north-west Africa. He is succeeded by Cardinal Henry.
1 October - Don John of Austria dies of fever.

Rebellion in Ireland.
Simier comes to England in an attempt to negotiate a marriage between Queen Elizabeth I and Alencon.
Bacon returns to England after his father’s death. Settles in Gray’s Inn. Anthony left the country.

5 June - A Proclamation is made to restrict the growth of London.
25 August - Philip of Spain invades Portugal, defeating the Portuguese army, and is proclaimed King of Portugal as Philip I.
26 September - Drake enters Plymouth Harbour after having circumnavigated the globe.
26 November - Peace of Fleix ends the seventh phase of the French Wars Of Religion.
MP for Bossiney in the brief Parliament of that year.

Other Events
Death of the famous architect Palladio.
Jesuit missionaries arrive in England.

4 April - Francis Drake is knighted.
Francis, Duke of Alencon, comes to England to further the negotioations for Queen Elizabeth's hand in marriage.
1 December - English Jesuit Edmund Campion is executed.
7-11 November - A marriage treaty is signed between Queen Elizabeth I and Alencon.

18 March - An assassination attempt against William of Orange, leader of the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule. He is seriously injured and loses the ability to speak. He afterwards becomes known as William The Silent.
22 August - James VI is captured by the English party whilst out hunting. He is kept in captivity until June 1583.
5 October - The Gregorian Calendar is adopted in Catholic countries. Consequently, the 5 of October becomes the 15th.

Other Events
Plague in London.

20 December - John Somerville is executed for a plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I.

Other Events
The Irish rebellion is defeated.
Ivan IV kills his son, Ivan, in a fit of rage.
William of Orange accepts the sovereignty of the northern Netherlands.

18 March - Death of Ivan the terrible (Tsar of Russia).
9 June - Death of Francis, Duke of Alencon.
10 July - Assassination of William of Orange.
10 July - Francis Throgmorton is executed for conspiring a Spanish invasion of England.
MP Weymouth and Melcombe Regis ( a seat sponsored by the Earl of Bedford, to whom he was related via his aunt Elizabeth.)

Other Events
The Bond of association is formed, in which loyal subjects of the Queen pledge allegiance to her and promise to avenge her murder should it take place.
Sir Walter Raleigh sails to Virginia.
The Spanish Ambassador, Mendoza, is expelled from England.

29 June - Elizabeth again refuses sovereignty of the Netherlands.
7 June - The first English colony in America is established at Roanoke Island, Virginia.
14 August - Elizabeth issues a declaration that she is taking the Netherlands under her protection.
3 September - Treaty of Nonsuch.
The English expedition to the Netherlands under the leadership of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. War with Spain begins as a result.
Delivers maiden speech in Parliament on a bill concerning wards.

1 July - Treaty of Berwick, in which Elizabeth I and James VI form a league of amity.
17 July - The Babington Plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I and put Mary, Queen of Scots, on the throne is discovered by Francis Walsingham.
20 September - Anthony Babington and his fellow conspirators are executed.
22 September - The Battle of Zutphen.
11-14 October - The trial of Mary, Queen of Scots, for her supposed complicity in the Babington Plot.
17 October - Sir Philip Sidney dies of wounds received in the Battle of Zutphen.
25 October - Sentence is pronounced against Mary, Queen of Scots.
12 December - King Stephen of Poland dies and is succeeded by the son of the Swedish King, Sigismund.
Becomes Reader at Gray’s Inn; sits as MP for Taunton; speaks in favour of the execution of Mary Queen of Scots (held in the custody of Sir Amias Paulet)

1 February - Elizabeth signs the death warrant of Mary, Queen of Scots.
8 February - Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots at Fotheringay Castle.
19 April - English attack Spanish fleet at Cadiz.
18 August - The first English child to be born in North America, Virginia Dare, is born on Roanoke Island.

8 August - Defeat of the Spanish Armada.
4 September - Death of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester.
4 April - Frederick II of Denmark dies, aged 53, and is succeeded by his 10 year old son, Christian IV.
Death of the earl of Leicester. Francis enters the circle of the earl of Essex; Anthony joins him in 1592 after his return from France following the death of Elizabeth’s spymaster, Walsingham.

5 January - Death of Catherine de Medici.
13 April - Francis Drake and Sir John Norris lead a campaign to Portugal.
31 July - Henry III of France is murdered.
MP for Liverpool (sponsored by Walsingham). Commissioned to write An Advertisement Touching the Controversies of the Church of England in response to the Marprelate controversy; Burghley grants Bacon the reversion of the Clerkship to the Council of the Star Chamber (a post worth a substantial annual sum, but which he did not actually obtain for twenty years)

6 April - Death of Sir Francis Walsingham.

Essex leads the English expedition to Brittany in an attempt to aid Henry IV.
Increased severity against Recusants.
20 November - Death of Sir Christopher Hatton.
Trinity College is founded by Queen Elizabeth I.

Clement VIII is now Pope.
Plague in London.
The Rose Theatre is opened.
Commissioned to write Observations upon a Libel in response to a Jesuit anti government invective; composes a performance piece for four speakers, ‘Of Tribute’, possibly as an entertainment at Gray’s Inn, probably on Essex’s behalf

25 July - Henry IV converts to Catholicism.
Further measures taken against recusants.
Plague in London.
1 June - Christopher Marlowe is killed.
Theatres are temporarily closed.
Anthony Bacon moves into Francis’s chambers at Gray’s Inn. Essex joins the Privy Council. Francis speaks in Parliament, opposing the granting of a subsidy to Queen Elizabeth; Burghley informs him that Elizabeth is furious. Subsequently she fails to promote him

22 March - Henry IV crowned King of France.
Becomes Learned Counsel (personal legal advisor) to Elizabeth; composes Gesta Grayorum for the Gray’s Inn revels.

Other Events
Beginning of a series of bad harvests.
Cardinal William Allen dies.
Frobisher dies.

2 February - Execution of English Jesuit, Robert Southwell.
Raleigh's voyage to Guiana.
6 January - Ottoman Sultan, Murad III, dies and is succeeded by his son, Mohammed III, who has his 19 brothers murdered.
23 July - The Spanish land in Cornwall and burn Penzance and Mousehole.
Vigorous but unsuccessful campaign by Essex to have Bacon made Solicitor General. Bacon writes Accession Day Device on behalf of Essex for the queen’s birthday on 17 November, but begins to distance himself publicly from the earl thereafter.

June/July - Essex's success at Cadiz.
Death of Sir Francis Drake.
Writes Maxims of the Law

Unsuccessful expedition against the Spanish under the leadership of Essex.

Second Spanish Armada is defeated by bad weather.First edition of Bacon’s Essays, which have been circulating in manuscript, published together with his Meditationes sacrae and Colours of Good and Evil. Dedicated to Anthony Bacon but presented to Essex with an effusive private dedication, ‘to whose disposition and commandment I have entirely and inviolably vowed my poor self, and whatever appertaineth unto me’
4 August - Death of William Cecil.
14 August - Irish forces defeat the English at the Yellow Ford on the Blackwater River.
13 September - Death of Philip II of Spain. Succession of his son, Philip III.
Other Events
End of the French Civil War.
Publication of Love's Labour's Lost, the first play published under Shakespeare's name.

13 January - Death of The Faerie Queene author Edmund Spenser.
25 April - Birth of Oliver Cromwell, future Protector of England following the English Civil War of the seventeenth century.
Other Events
Essex is made Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and sent there. He returns without the Queen's consent and is imprisoned.
Globe Theatre in London is opened.
5 October - Henry IV of France marries Marie de Medici.
5 August - Gowrie Conspiracy in Scotland - James VI is seized by Lord Gowrie, but later rescued.
Other Events
English East India Company is founded.
Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, tried for misdemeanours after his return from Ireland.
7-8 January - Essex Revolt against Queen Elizabeth I.
19 February - Essex is tried for treason.
25 February - Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, is executed.
20 November - Queen Elizabeth delivers her "Golden Speech".
Other Events
A force of 3,000 Spaniards arrive in Ireland to aid the Irish rebellion.
English Fleet captures a Portuguese treasure ship. Small pox epidemic.
24 March - Death of Queen Elizabeth I. James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England.
15 April - Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes which tolerates Protestants.

Following Essex’s rebellion, Bacon escapes prosecution when others in Essex’s service are implicated and executed with him. Bacon is appointed one of the prosecutors at his trial for treason and writes A Declaration of the Practices and Treasons Attempted and Committed by Robert, Late Earl of Essex. Anthony Bacon is not prosecuted because of his ill health; he dies shortly thereafter.

Knighted by James I upon his accession to the throne after the death of Elizabeth I; gains favour with the king as brother of the deceased Anthony, since Anthony, unlike Francis, had con- tinued to support Essex to the end. Bacon writes A Brief Discourse Touching the Happy Union of the Kingdoms of England and Scotland.

Appointed Learned Counsel to the king
August - James I ends the war with Spain. (One of James I's first acts of foreign policy was to end the long war with Spain, which had continued intermittently for 20 years. The resulting Treaty of London was largely favourable to Spain, but was also an acknowledgement by the Spanish that their hopes of bringing England under Spanish control were over. The end of the war greatly eased the English government's near bankrupt financial state. England and Spain were at peace for the next 50 years.)

5 November - Gunpowder Plot to assassinate James I is discovered: In 1604, a group of English Catholics, angered by James I's failure to relax the penal laws against their co-religionists, hatched a plot to blow up the king and parliament by igniting gunpowder barrels concealed in a vault beneath the building. The plot was discovered before it could be carried out. The conspirators, including Guy Fawkes after whom the plot is often known, were either killed resisting arrest, or captured and then executed by being hanged, drawn and quartered.
Publishes Two Bookes of the Proficiencie and Advancement of Learning, Divine and Humane – generally known as The Advancement of Learning – a blueprint for how to improve the state of learning in the kingdom designed to flatter the king, who prided himself on his intellectual interests.

Marries fourteen-year-old Alice Barnham for her fortune (Bacon was forty-five); eyewitnesses describe the wedding of Bacon to ‘his young wench’ as a sumptuous affair

September - Irish Earls flee to the continent fearing arrest:Following their defeat in the Nine Years' War, Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone and Rory O’Donnell, Earl of Tyrconnell were treated leniently by the victorious English government of Ireland and allowed to retain their lands and titles. But in 1605, the new lord deputy, Arthur Chichester, began to restrict their authority. Fearing arrest, the two fled to the continent with 90 family members and followers - the 'Flight of the Earls'. This marked the end of the power of Ireland’s Gaelic aristocracy.
Makes supremely eloquent speech to Parliament in favour of the union of Scotland and England; appointed Solicitor General.

Plantation of Ulster sees Protestants moving onto confiscated Irish land: In the wake of the Nine Years' War, James I determined to secure Ulster for the Crown through a systematic settlement programme. Protestants from England and Scotland were encouraged to move to Ulster, cultivate the land and establish towns. These 'planters' moved onto land confiscated from its Gaelic Catholic inhabitants. The plantation was often organised through guilds and corporations. The London companies were granted the city of Derry, thereafter known as Londonderry.  
De sapientia veterum (Wisdom of the Ancients) published.

Death of Bacon’s mother, who had descended into mental infirmity some years earlier

'King James Bible' is published: By the end of the 16th century, there were several different English bibles in circulation and the church authorities felt a definitive version was needed. The 'Authorised Version of the Bible' (also known as the 'King James Bible') was commissioned in 1604. It became the most famous English translation of the scriptures and had a profound impact on the English language.

Publishes second and expanded edition of his popular Essays.

14 February - James I's daughter Elizabeth marries Frederick V, Elector Palatine The eldest daughter of James I and Anne of Denmark, Princess Elizabeth, was widely admired for her beauty, spirit and charm. She married Frederick V, Elector of the Rhine Palatinate, at the age of 16 and travelled with him to Heidelberg. Six years later, Frederick was elected king of Bohemia, but he and Elizabeth were driven out of the country by Catholic forces soon afterwards. It was through Elizabeth's descendants that the House of Hanover came to inherit the English throne.

Appointed Attorney General; devises Masque of Flowers to honour the marriage of Robert Carr, earl of Somerset, and Frances Howard, performed on Twelfth Night.

23 April - William Shakespeare dies: William Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright, popular in his time but subsequently regarded as the greatest writer in the English language. He wrote numerous sonnets and poems as well as more than 30 plays, including A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Henry V, Richard III, Macbeth, Hamlet and King Lear.
Privy Councillor; presides at the successful trial of Frances Carr and Somerset for the murder of Thomas Overbury. Frances was subsequently pardoned, Somerset executed. Bacon gains the favour of the duke of Buckingham


Bacon closely involved in the meteoric rise of Buckingham. Appointed Lord Keeper of the Great Seal; takes up residence in his father’s house (and his own birthplace), York House in London.

January - Appointed Lord Chancellor. Presides over the successful prosecution and subsequent execution of Sir Walter Ralegh.
July - Raised to the peerage as Baron Verulam.

First record of Africans in British North American colonies: The first Africans who arrived in Jamestown, Virginia were not slaves but indentured servants. However, over the course of the 17th century their status gradually shifted so that more and more became slaves. Race-based slavery soon became central to the economy of the British colonies in North America.
Bacon and the king both ill with the stone. Queen Anne dies (James does not attend her funeral)

August - 'Pilgrim Fathers' sail for America in the 'Mayflower': A group attempting to escape religious persecution in England sailed for the New World and landed at Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts. They became known as the 'Pilgrim Fathers', and are often portrayed as the founders of modern America. In reality, the first permanent British colony in North America was Jamestown in Virginia, founded by Captain John Smith in 1607. Jamestown was established on behalf of the London Company, which hoped to make a profit from the new colony for its shareholders.
October - Publishes first edition of Instauratio magna (Great Instauration, including The New Organon) in Latin.

Created Viscount St Albans in January. Impeached in May in the House of Lords for accepting bribes; briefly imprisoned at the end of May but released to house arrest on 2 June; retired to his house at Gorhambury on 23 June. Thereafter he returned only occasionally to York House in London to ‘take physic and provide for his health’.

Publishes History of Henry VII in March (previously presented in manuscript to James in October 1621 in a bid to return to favour); publishes History of Winds and History of Life and Death in November (presenting the latter to Buckingham in January 1623)

Publishes De augmentis scientiarum, the Latin translation and elaboration of The Advancement of Learning.

Apophthegms and A Translation of Certain Psalms into English Verse published.

27 March - King James dies and is succeeded by his son Charles I: James I was struck down by what contemporaries described as 'a tertian ague' and died in his bed at Theobalds, in Hertfordshire, at the age of 57. He was succeeded by his only surviving son, Charles, then 24-years-old, who was proclaimed as king at the gates of Theobalds a few hours later.
17 May - Barbados comes under British control: Captain John Powell landed in Barbados in 1625 and claimed the island as a British Caribbean colony. He returned two years later with a group of settlers and Barbados was developed into a sugar plantation economy using at first indentured servants and then slaves captured in West Africa.
Bacon officially dismissed from the Privy Council in April. Bacon publishes his further enlarged Essayes, or Counsels, Civill and Morall.

9 April - Bacon dies at the Highgate home of the earl of Arundel, having been taken violently ill on the return journey to Gorhambury after a visit to York House in London to take physic; 20 April, his widow Alice marries her late husband’s gentleman usher, John Underhill, Bacon’s chaplain, William Rawley, publishes commemorative volume of Latin poems in Bacon’s memory; Rawley begins posthumous printing of Bacon’s unpublished papers: Sylva sylvarum and New Atlantis printed together with preface by Rawley.

Rawley publishes Certain Miscellany Works (1629), Operum moralium et civilium tomus (1638), Resuscitatio (with ‘Life’ by Rawley) (1657) and Opuscula varia posthuma (1658).

KBO - "Keep buggering on," Winston Churchill'in sıklıkla kullandığı bir deyimdir. Konuşmalarının neredeyse tamamını KBO ile bitirdiği söylenir.

Hiç yorum yok:

Yorum Gönder